Software Testing Dictionary - 6

Latent bug A bug that has been dormant (unobserved) in two or more releases. [R. V. Binder, 1999]

Lateral testing. A test design technique based on lateral thinking principals, to identify faults. [Dorothy Graham, 1999]

Limits testing. See Boundary Condition testing.

Load testing Testing an application under heavy loads, such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails.

Load Stress test. A test is design to determine how heavy a load the application can handle.

Load-stability test. Test design to determine whether a Web application will remain serviceable over extended time span.

Load Isolation test. The workload for this type of test is designed to contain only the subset of test cases that caused the problem in previous testing.

Longevity testing. See Reliability testing.

Long-haul Testing. ASee Reliability testing.

Master Test Planning. An activity undertaken to orchestrate the testing effort across levels and organizations.[Systematic Software Testing by Rick D. Craig and Stefan P. Jaskiel 2002]

Monkey Testing.(smart monkey testing) Input are generated from probability distributions that reflect actual expected usage statistics -- e.g., from user profiles. There are different levels of IQ in smart monkey testing. In the simplest, each input is considered independent of the other inputs. That is, a given test requires an input vector with five components. In low IQ testing, these would be generated independently. In high IQ monkey testing, the correlation (e.g., the covariance) between these input distribution is taken into account. In all branches of smart monkey testing, the input is considered as a single event.

Maximum Simultaneous Connection testing. This is a test performed to determine the number of connections which the firewall or Web server is capable of handling.
Migration Testing. Testing to see if the customer will be able to transition smoothly from a prior version of the software to a new one. [Scott Loveland, 2005]
Mutation testing. A testing strategy where small variations to a program are inserted (a mutant), followed by execution of an existing test suite. If the test suite detects the mutant, the mutant is retired.Undetected, the test suite must be revised. [R. V. Binder, 1999]

Multiple Condition Coverage. A test coverage criteria which requires enough test cases such that all possible combinations of condition outcomes in each decision, and all points of entry, are invoked at least once.[G.Myers] Contrast with branch coverage, condition coverage, decision coverage, path coverage, statement coverage.

Software Testing Dictionary -5

High-level tests. These tests involve testing whole, complete products [Kit, 1995] 

Inspection A formal evaluation technique in which software requirements, design, or code are examined in detail by person or group other than the author to detect faults, violations of development standards, and other problems [IEEE94]. A quality improvement process for written material that consists of two dominant components: product (document) improvement and process improvement (document production and inspection).

Integration The process of combining software components or hardware components or both into overall system.

Integration testing - testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. The 'parts' can be code modules, individual applications, client and server applications on a network, etc. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.

Integration Testing. Testing conducted after unit and feature testing. The intent is to expose faults in the interactions between software modules and functions. Either top-down or bottom-up approaches can be used. A bottom-up method is preferred, since it leads to earlier unit testing (step-level integration) This method is contrary to the big-bang approach where all source modules are combined and tested in one step. The big-bang approach to integration should be discouraged.

Interface Tests Programs that probide test facilities for external interfaces and function calls. Simulation is often used to test external interfaces that currently may not be available for testing or are difficult to control. For example, hardware resources such as hard disks and memory may be difficult to control. Therefore, simulation can provide the characteristics or behaviors for specific function.

Internationalization testing (I18N) - testing related to handling foreign text and data within the program. This would include sorting, importing and exporting test and data, correct handling of currency and date and time formats, string parsing, upper and lower case handling and so forth. [Clinton De Young, 2003].

Interoperability Testing which measures the ability of your software to communicate across the network on multiple machines from multiple vendors each of whom may have interpreted a design specification critical to your success differently. Inter-operability Testing. True inter-operability testing concerns testing for unforeseen interactions with other packages with which your software has no direct connection. In some quarters, inter-operability testing labor equals all other testing combined. This is the kind of testing that I say shouldnÂ’t be done because it canÂ’t be done.[from Quality Is Not The Goal. By Boris Beizer, Ph. D.]

V Model


V&V Model is Verification & Validation Model.In This Model We work simultaneously Development and Testing.In this Model One V for Verification and one For Validation first 'V' we follow SDLC(software Development Life Cycle) and Second 'V' we follow STLC-(Software Testing Life Cycle). 
Testing normally done in a large system in 2 parts. The functional verification and validation against the Requirement specification and Performance evaluation against the indicated requirements. 
Testing activity is involved right from the beginning of the project. 
Use of V&V process model increases the rate of success in a project development company to deliver the application on time and increases the cost effectiveness. 

Testing Related Activities During Requirement Phase
Creation and finalization of testing template. 
Creation of test plan and test strategy . 
Capturing Acceptance criteria and preparation of acceptance test plan. 
Capturing Performance Criteria of the software requirements. 

Testing activities in Design Phase 
Develop test cases to ensure that product is on par with Requirement Specification document. 
Verify Test Cases & Test Scripts by peer reviews. 
Preparation of traceability matrix from system requirements. 

Testing activities in Unit Testing Phase 
Unit test is done for validating the product with respect to client requirements. 
Testing can be in multiple rounds. 
Defects found during system test should be logged in to defect tracking system for the purpose of resolving and tracking. 
Test logs and defects are captured and maintained. 
Review of all test documents. 

Testing activities in Integration Testing Phase 
This testing is done in parallel with integration of various applications or components. 
Testing the product with its external and internal interfaces without using drivers and stubs. 
Incremental approach while integrating the interfaces. 

Performance testing 
This is done to validate the performance criteria of the product/ application. This is non-functional testing. 

Business Cycle testing 
This refers to end to end testing of real life like business scenarios. 

Testing activities during Release phase
Acceptance testing is conducted at the customer location. 
Resolves all defects reported by the customer during Acceptance testing. 
Conduct Root Cause Analysis (RCA) for those defects reported by customer during acceptance testing. 

Software Testing Dictionary -1

Acceptance Test: - Formal tests (often performed by a customer) to determine whether or not a system has satisfied predetermined acceptance criteria. These tests are often used to enable the customer (either internal or external) to determine whether or not to accept a system.

Ad Hoc Testing: - Testing carried out using no recognized test case design technique. [BCS]

Alpha Testing: - Testing of a software product or system conducted at the developer's site by the customer.

Artistic Testing: - Also known as Exploratory testing.

Assertion Testing. (NBS) A dynamic analysis technique which inserts assertions about the relationship between program variables into the program code. The truth of the assertions is determined as the program executes.

Automated Testing Software testing which is assisted with software technology that does not require operator (tester) input, analysis, or evaluation.

Background testing. is the execution of normal functional testing while the SUT is exercised by a realistic work load. This work load is being processed "in the background" as far as the functional testing is concerned. [ Load Testing Terminology by Scott Stirling ]

Bug: glitch, error, goof, slip, fault, blunder, boner, howler, oversight, botch, delusion, elision. [B. Beizer, 1990], defect, issue, problem

Beta Testing. Testing conducted at one or more customer sites by the end-user of a delivered software product or system.

Benchmarks Programs that provide performance comparison for software, hardware, and systems.

Benchmarking is specific type of performance test with the purpose of determining performance baselines for comparison. [Load Testing Terminology by Scott Stirling ]

Big-bang testing Integration testing where no incremental testing takes place prior to all the system's components being combined to form the system.[BCS]

Black box testing. A testing method where the application under test is viewed as a black box and the internal behavior of the program is completely ignored. Testing occurs based upon the external specifications. Also known as behavioral testing, since only the external behaviors of the program are evaluated and analyzed.

Boundary Value Analysis (BVA). BVA is different from equivalence partitioning in that it focuses on "corner cases" or values that are usually out of range as defined by the specification. This means that if function expects all values in range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and positive 1001. BVA attempts to derive the value often used as a technique for stress, load or volume testing. This type of validation is usually performed after positive functional validation has completed (successfully) using requirements specifications and user documentation.

Breadth test. - A test suite that exercises the full scope of a system from a top-down perspective, but does not test any aspect in detail [Dorothy Graham, 1999]

Cause Effect Graphing. (1) [NBS] Test data selection technique. The input and output domains are partitioned into classes and analysis is performed to determine which input classes cause which effect. A minimal set of inputs is chosen which will cover the entire effect set. (2)A systematic method of generating test cases representing combinations of conditions. See: testing, functional.[G. Myers]

Clean test. A test whose primary purpose is validation; that is, tests designed to demonstrate the software`s correct working.(syn. positive test)[B. Beizer 1995]

Code Inspection. A manual [formal] testing [error detection] technique where the programmer reads source code, statement by statement, to a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzing its compliance with coding standards. Contrast with code audit, code review, code walkthrough. This technique can also be applied to other software and configuration items. [G.Myers/NBS] Syn: Fagan Inspection

Code Walkthrough. A manual testing [error detection] technique where program [source code] logic [structure] is traced manually [mentally] by a group with a small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manually monitored, to analyze the programmer's logic and assumptions.[G.Myers/NBS] Contrast with code audit, code inspection, code review.

Coexistence Testing.Coexistence isnÂ’t enough. It also depends on load order, how virtual space is mapped at the moment, hardware and software configurations, and the history of what took place hours or days before. ItÂ’s probably an exponentially hard problem rather than a square-law problem. [from Quality Is Not The Goal. By Boris Beizer, Ph. D.]

Compatibility bug A revision to the framework breaks a previously working feature: a new feature is inconsistent with an old feature, or a new feature breaks an unchanged application rebuilt with the new framework code. [R. V. Binder, 1999]

Compatibility Testing. The process of determining the ability of two or more systems to exchange information. In a situation where the developed software replaces an already working program, an investigation should be conducted to assess possible comparability problems between the new software and other programs or systems.

Composability testing –testing the ability of the interface to let users do more complex tasks by combining different sequences of simpler, easy-to-learn tasks. [Timothy Dyck, ‘Easy’ and other lies, eWEEK April 28, 2003]

Condition Coverage. A test coverage criteria requiring enough test cases such that each condition in a decision takes on all possible outcomes at least once, and each point of entry to a program or subroutine is invoked at least once. Contrast with branch coverage, decision coverage, multiple condition coverage, path coverage, statement coverage.[G.Myers]

Conformance directed testing. Testing that seeks to establish conformance to requirements or specification. [R. V. Binder, 1999]

Cookbook scenario. A test scenario description that provides complete, step-by-step details about how the scenario should be performed. It leaves nothing to change. [Scott Loveland, 2005]

CRUD Testing. Build CRUD matrix and test all object creation, reads, updates, and deletion. [William E. Lewis, 2000]

Software Testing Dictionary -4

Failure: A failure is a deviation from expectations exhibited by software and observed as a set of symptoms by a tester or user. A failure is caused by one or more defects. The Causal Trail. A person makes an error that causes a defect that causes a failure.[Robert M. Poston, 1996]

Fix testing. Rerunning of a test that previously found the bug in order to see if a supplied fix works. [Scott Loveland, 2005]

Follow-up testing, we vary a test that yielded a less-thanspectacular failure. We vary the operation, data, or environment, asking whether the underlying fault in the code can yield a more serious failure or a failure under a broader range of circumstances.[Measuring the Effectiveness of Software Testers,Cem Kaner, STAR East 2003]

Formal Testing. (IEEE) Testing conducted in accordance with test plans and procedures that have been reviewed and approved by a customer, user, or designated level of management. Antonym: informal testing.

Framework scenario. A test scenario definition that provides only enough high-level information to remind the tester of everything that needs to be covered for that scenario. The description captures the activity’s essence, but trusts the tester to work through the specific steps required.[Scott Loveland, 2005]

Free Form Testing. Ad hoc or brainstorming using intuition to define test cases. [William E. Lewis, 2000]

Functional Decomposition Approach. An automation method in which the test cases are reduced to fundamental tasks, navigation, functional tests, data verification, and return navigation; also known as Framework Driven Approach. [Daniel J. Mosley, 2002]

Functional testing Application of test data derived from the specified functional requirements without regard to the final program structure. Also known as black-box testing.

Gray box testing Tests involving inputs and outputs, but test design is educated by information about the code or the program operation of a kind that would normally be out of scope of view of the tester.[Cem Kaner]

Gray box testing Test designed based on the knowledge of algorithm, internal states, architectures, or other high -level descriptions of the program behavior. [Doug Hoffman]

Gray box testing Examines the activity of back-end components during test case execution. Two types of problems that can be encountered during gray-box testing are:
§Ҩi A component encounters a failure of some kind, causing the operation to be aborted. The user interface will typically indicate that an error has occurred.
§Ҩi The test executes in full, but the content of the results is incorrect. Somewhere in the system, a component processed data incorrectly, causing the error in the results.
[Elfriede Dustin. "Quality Web Systems: Performance, Security & Usability."]

Grooved Tests. Tests that simply repeat the same activity against a target product from cycle to cycle. [Scott Loveland, 2005]

Software Testing Dictionary -3

End-to-End testing. Similar to system testing; the 'macro' end of the test scale; involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.

Equivalence Partitioning: An approach where classes of inputs are categorized for product or function validation. This usually does not include combinations of input, but rather a single state value based by class. For example, with a given function there may be several classes of input that may be used for positive testing. If function expects an integer and receives an integer as input, this would be considered as positive test assertion. On the other hand, if a character or any other input class other than integer is provided, this would be considered a negative test assertion or condition.

Error: An error is a mistake of commission or omission that a person makes. An error causes a defect. In software development one error may cause one or more defects in requirements, designs, programs, or tests.[Robert M. Poston, 1996.]

Errors: The amount by which a result is incorrect. Mistakes are usually a result of a human action. Human mistakes (errors) often result in faults contained in the source code, specification, documentation, or other product deliverable. Once a fault is encountered, the end result will be a program failure. The failure usually has some margin of error, either high, medium, or low.

Error Guessing: Another common approach to black-box validation. Black-box testing is when everything else other than the source code may be used for testing. This is the most common approach to testing. Error guessing is when random inputs or conditions are used for testing. Random in this case includes a value either produced by a computerized random number generator, or an ad hoc value or test conditions provided by engineer.

Error guessing. A test case design technique where the experience of the tester is used to postulate what faults exist, and to design tests specially to expose them [from BS7925-1]

Error seeding. The purposeful introduction of faults into a program to test effectiveness of a test suite or other quality assurance program. [R. V. Binder, 1999]

Exception Testing. Identify error messages and exception handling processes an conditions that trigger them. [William E. Lewis, 2000]

Exhaustive Testing.(NBS) Executing the program with all possible combinations of values for program variables. Feasible only for small, simple programs.

Exploratory Testing: An interactive process of concurrent product exploration, test design, and test execution. The heart of exploratory testing can be stated simply: The outcome of this test influences the design of the next test. [James Bach]

Software Testing Dictionary -2

Data-Driven testing An automation approach in which the navigation and functionality of the test script is directed through external data; this approach separates test and control data from the test script. [Daniel J. Mosley, 2002]

Data flow testing Testing in which test cases are designed based on variable usage within the code.[BCS]

Database testing. Check the integrity of database field values. [William E. Lewis, 2000]

Defect The difference between the functional specification (including user documentation) and actual program text (source code and data). Often reported as problem and stored in defect-tracking and problem-management system

Defect Also called a fault or a bug, a defect is an incorrect part of code that is caused by an error. An error of commission causes a defect of wrong or extra code. An error of omission results in a defect of missing code. A defect may cause one or more failures.[Robert M. Poston, 1996.]

Defect. A flaw in the software with potential to cause a failure.. [Systematic Software Testing by Rick D. Craig and Stefan P. Jaskiel 2002]

Defect Age. A measurement that describes the period of time from the introduction of a defect until its discovery. . [Systematic Software Testing by Rick D. Craig and Stefan P. Jaskiel 2002]

Defect Density. A metric that compares the number of defects to a measure of size (e.g., defects per KLOC). Often used as a measure of defect quality. [Systematic Software Testing by Rick D. Craig and Stefan P. Jaskiel 2002]

Defect Discovery Rate.A metric describing the number of defects discovered over a specified period of time, usually displayed in graphical form. [Systematic Software Testing by Rick D. Craig and Stefan P. Jaskiel 2002]

Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE).A measure of the number of defects discovered in an activity versus the number that could have been found. Often used as a measure of test effectiveness. [Systematic Software Testing by Rick D. Craig and Stefan P. Jaskiel 2002]

Defect Seeding.The process of intentionally adding known defects to those already in a computer program for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal, and estimating the number of defects still remaining. Also called Error Seeding. [Systematic Software Testing by Rick D. Craig and Stefan P. Jaskiel 2002]

Defect Masked.An existing defect that hasn't yet caused a failure because another defect has prevented that part of the code from being executed. [Systematic Software Testing by Rick D. Craig and Stefan P. Jaskiel 2002]

Depth test. A test case, that exercises some part of a system to a significant level of detail. [Dorothy Graham, 1999]

Decision Coverage. A test coverage criteria requiring enough test cases such that each decision has a true and false result at least once, and that each statement is executed at least once. Syn: branch coverage. Contrast with condition coverage, multiple condition coverage, path coverage, statement coverage.[G.Myers]

Dirty testing Negative testing. [Beizer]

Dynamic testing. Testing, based on specific test cases, by execution of the test object or running programs [Tim Koomen, 1999]