Interview questions on WinRunner


  1. How you used WinRunner in your project? - Yes, I have been using WinRunner for creating automated scripts for GUI, functional and regression testing of the AUT.
  2. Explain WinRunner testing process? - WinRunner testing process involves six main stages
    • Create GUI Map File so that WinRunner can recognize the GUI objects in the application being tested
    • Create test scripts by recording, programming, or a combination of both. While recording tests, insert checkpoints where you want to check the response of the application being tested.
    • Debug Test: run tests in Debug mode to make sure they run smoothly
    • Run Tests: run tests in Verify mode to test your application.
    • View Results: determines the success or failure of the tests.
    • Report Defects: If a test run fails due to a defect in the application being tested, you can report information about the defect directly from the Test Results window.
  3. What is contained in the GUI map?  - WinRunner stores information it learns about a window or object in a GUI Map. When WinRunner runs a test, it uses the GUI map to locate objects. It reads an object.s description in the GUI map and then looks for an object with the same properties in the application being tested. Each of these objects in the GUI Map file will be having a logical name and a physical description. There are 2 types of GUI Map files. Global GUI Map file: a single GUI Map file for the entire application. GUI Map File per Test: WinRunner automatically creates a GUI Map file for each test created.
  4. How does WinRunner recognize objects on the application? - WinRunner uses the GUI Map file to recognize objects on the application. When WinRunner runs a test, it uses the GUI map to locate objects. It reads an object.s description in the GUI map and then looks for an object with the same properties in the application being tested.
  5. Have you created test scripts and what is contained in the test scripts?  - Yes I have created test scripts. It contains the statement in Mercury Interactive.s Test Script Language (TSL). These statements appear as a test script in a test window. You can then enhance your recorded test script, either by typing in additional TSL functions and programming elements or by using WinRunner.s visual programming tool, the Function Generator.
  6. How does WinRunner evaluate test results? - Following each test run, WinRunner displays the results in a report. The report details all the major events that occurred during the run, such as checkpoints, error messages, system messages, or user messages. If mismatches are detected at checkpoints during the test run, you can view the expected results and the actual results from the Test Results window.
  7. Have you performed debugging of the scripts? - Yes, I have performed debugging of scripts. We can debug the script by executing the script in the debug mode. We can also debug script using the Step, Step Into, Step out functionalities provided by the WinRunner.
  8. How do you run your test scripts? - We run tests in Verify mode to test your application. Each time WinRunner encounters a checkpoint in the test script, it compares the current data of the application being tested to the expected data captured earlier. If any mismatches are found, WinRunner captures them as actual results.
  9. How do you analyze results and report the defects? - Following each test run, WinRunner displays the results in a report. The report details all the major events that occurred during the run, such as checkpoints, error messages, system messages, or user messages. If mismatches are detected at checkpoints during the test run, you can view the expected results and the actual results from the Test Results window. If a test run fails due to a defect in the application being tested, you can report information about the defect directly from the Test Results window. This information is sent via e-mail to the quality assurance manager, who tracks the defect until it is fixed.
  10. What is the use of Test Director software? - TestDirector is Mercury Interactive.s software test management tool. It helps quality assurance personnel plan and organize the testing process. With TestDirector you can create a database of manual and automated tests, build test cycles, run tests, and report and track defects. You can also create reports and graphs to help review the progress of planning tests, running tests, and tracking defects before a software release.
  11. Have you integrated your automated scripts from TestDirector? - When you work with WinRunner, you can choose to save your tests directly to your TestDirector database or while creating a test case in the TestDirector we can specify whether the script in automated or manual. And if it is automated script then TestDirector will build a skeleton for the script that can be later modified into one which could be used to test the AUT.
  12. What are the different modes of recording? - There are two type of recording in WinRunner.  Context Sensitive recording records the operations you perform on your application by identifying Graphical User Interface (GUI) objects. Analog recording records keyboard input, mouse clicks, and the precise x- and y-coordinates traveled by the mouse pointer across the screen.
  13. What is the purpose of loading WinRunner Add-Ins?  - Add-Ins are used in WinRunner to load functions specific to the particular add-in to the memory. While creating a script only those functions in the add-in selected will be listed in the function generator and while executing the script only those functions in the loaded add-in will be executed else WinRunner will give an error message saying it does not recognize the function.
  14. What are the reasons that WinRunner  - WinRunner fails to identify an object in a GUI due to various reasons.  The object is not a standard windows object. If the browser used is not compatible with the WinRunner version, GUI Map Editor will not be able to learn any of the objects displayed in the browser window.
  15. What is meant by the logical name of the object? - An object.s logical name is determined by its class. In most cases, the logical name is the label that appears on an object.
  16. If the object does not have a name then what will be the logical name?  - If the object does not have a name then the logical name could be the attached text.
  17. What is the different between GUI map and GUI map files? - The GUI map is actually the sum of one or more GUI map files. There are two modes for organizing GUI map files. Global GUI Map file: a single GUI Map file for the entire application. GUI Map File per Test: WinRunner automatically creates a GUI Map file for each test created.
  18. GUI Map file is a file which contains the windows and the objects learned by the WinRunner with its logical name and their physical description.
  19. How do you view the contents of the GUI map? - GUI Map editor displays the content of a GUI Map. We can invoke GUI Map Editor from the Tools Menu in WinRunner. The GUI Map Editor displays the various GUI Map files created and the windows and objects learned in to them with their logical name and physical description.
  20. When you create GUI map do you record all the objects of specific objects?  - If we are learning a window then WinRunner automatically learns all the objects in the window else we will we identifying those object, which are to be learned in a window, since we will be working with only those objects while creating scripts.

LoadRunner interview questions


  1. What is load testing? - Load testing is to test that if the application works fine with the loads that result from large number of simultaneous users, transactions and to determine weather it can handle peak usage periods.
  2. What is Performance testing? - Timing for both read and update transactions should be gathered to determine whether system functions are being performed in an acceptable timeframe. This should be done standalone and then in a multi user environment to determine the effect of multiple transactions on the timing of a single transaction.
  3. Did u use LoadRunner? What version? - Yes. Version 7.2.
  4. Explain the Load testing process? -
    Step 1: Planning the test. Here, we develop a clearly defined test plan to ensure the test scenarios we develop will accomplish load-testing objectives. Step 2: Creating Vusers. Here, we create Vuser scripts that contain tasks performed by each Vuser, tasks performed by Vusers as a whole, and tasks measured as transactions. Step 3: Creating the scenario. A scenario describes the events that occur during a testing session. It includes a list of machines, scripts, and Vusers that run during the scenario. We create scenarios using LoadRunner Controller. We can create manual scenarios as well as goal-oriented scenarios. In manual scenarios, we define the number of Vusers, the load generator machines, and percentage of Vusers to be assigned to each script. For web tests, we may create a goal-oriented scenario where we define the goal that our test has to achieve. LoadRunner automatically builds a scenario for us. Step 4: Running the scenario.We emulate load on the server by instructing multiple Vusers to perform tasks simultaneously. Before the testing, we set the scenario configuration and scheduling. We can run the entire scenario, Vuser groups, or individual Vusers. Step 5: Monitoring the scenario.We monitor scenario execution using the LoadRunner online runtime, transaction, system resource, Web resource, Web server resource, Web application server resource, database server resource, network delay, streaming media resource, firewall server resource, ERP server resource, and Java performance monitors. Step 6: Analyzing test results. During scenario execution, LoadRunner records the performance of the application under different loads. We use LoadRunner.s graphs and reports to analyze the application.s performance.
  5. When do you do load and performance Testing? - We perform load testing once we are done with interface (GUI) testing. Modern system architectures are large and complex. Whereas single user testing primarily on functionality and user interface of a system component, application testing focuses on performance and reliability of an entire system. For example, a typical application-testing scenario might depict 1000 users logging in simultaneously to a system. This gives rise to issues such as what is the response time of the system, does it crash, will it go with different software applications and platforms, can it hold so many hundreds and thousands of users, etc. This is when we set do load and performance testing.
  6. What are the components of LoadRunner? - The components of LoadRunner are The Virtual User Generator, Controller, and the Agent process, LoadRunner Analysis and Monitoring, LoadRunner Books Online.
  7. What Component of LoadRunner would you use to record a Script? - The Virtual User Generator (VuGen) component is used to record a script. It enables you to develop Vuser scripts for a variety of application types and communication protocols.
  8. What Component of LoadRunner would you use to play Back the script in multi user mode? - The Controller component is used to playback the script in multi-user mode. This is done during a scenario run where a vuser script is executed by a number of vusers in a group.
  9. What is a rendezvous point? - You insert rendezvous points into Vuser scripts to emulate heavy user load on the server. Rendezvous points instruct Vusers to wait during test execution for multiple Vusers to arrive at a certain point, in order that they may simultaneously perform a task. For example, to emulate peak load on the bank server, you can insert a rendezvous point instructing 100 Vusers to deposit cash into their accounts at the same time.
  10. What is a scenario? - A scenario defines the events that occur during each testing session. For example, a scenario defines and controls the number of users to emulate, the actions to be performed, and the machines on which the virtual users run their emulations.
  11. Explain the recording mode for web Vuser script? - We use VuGen to develop a Vuser script by recording a user performing typical business processes on a client application. VuGen creates the script by recording the activity between the client and the server. For example, in web based applications, VuGen monitors the client end of the database and traces all the requests sent to, and received from, the database server. We use VuGen to: Monitor the communication between the application and the server; Generate the required function calls; and Insert the generated function calls into a Vuser script.
  12. Why do you create parameters? - Parameters are like script variables. They are used to vary input to the server and to emulate real users. Different sets of data are sent to the server each time the script is run. Better simulate the usage model for more accurate testing from the Controller; one script can emulate many different users on the system.
  13. What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation? - Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.
  14. How do you find out where correlation is required? Give few examples from your projects? - Two ways: First we can scan for correlations, and see the list of values which can be correlated. From this we can pick a value to be correlated. Secondly, we can record two scripts and compare them. We can look up the difference file to see for the values which needed to be correlated.  In my project, there was a unique id developed for each customer, it was nothing but Insurance Number, it was generated automatically and it was sequential and this value was unique. I had to correlate this value, in order to avoid errors while running my script. I did using scan for correlation.
  15. Where do you set automatic correlation options? - Automatic correlation from web point of view can be set in recording options and correlation tab. Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that correlation. Automatic correlation for database can be done using show output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific value to be correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and specify how the value to be created.
  16. What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web Vuser script? - Web_reg_save_param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.
  17. When do you disable log in Virtual User Generator, When do you choose standard and extended logs? - Once we debug our script and verify that it is functional, we can enable logging for errors only. When we add a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. Standard Log Option: When you select
    Standard log, it creates a standard log of functions and messages sent during script execution to use for debugging. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled Extended Log OptionSelect
    extended log to create an extended log, including warnings and other messages. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. We can specify which additional information should be added to the extended log using the Extended log options.
  18. How do you debug a LoadRunner script? - VuGen contains two options to help debug Vuser scripts-the Run Step by Step command and breakpoints. The Debug settings in the Options dialog box allow us to determine the extent of the trace to be performed during scenario execution. The debug information is written to the Output window. We can manually set the message class within your script using the lr_set_debug_message function. This is useful if we want to receive debug information about a small section of the script only.
  19. How do you write user defined functions in LR? Give me few functions you wrote in your previous project? - Before we create the User Defined functions we need to create the external
    library (DLL) with the function. We add this library to VuGen bin directory. Once the library is added then we assign user defined function as a parameter. The function should have the following format: __declspec (dllexport) char* <function name>(char*, char*)Examples of user defined functions are as follows:GetVersion, GetCurrentTime, GetPltform are some of the user defined functions used in my earlier project.
  20. What are the changes you can make in run-time settings? - The Run Time Settings that we make are: a) Pacing - It has iteration count. b) Log - Under this we have Disable Logging Standard Log and c) Extended Think Time - In think time we have two options like Ignore think time and Replay think time. d)General - Under general tab we can set the vusers as process or as multithreading and whether each step as a transaction.
  21. Where do you set Iteration for Vuser testing? - We set Iterations in the Run Time Settings of the VuGen. The navigation for this is Run time settings, Pacing tab, set number of iterations.
  22. How do you perform functional testing under load? - Functionality under load can be tested by running several Vusers concurrently. By increasing the amount of Vusers, we can determine how much load the server can sustain.
  23. What is Ramp up? How do you set this? - This option is used to gradually increase the amount of Vusers/load on the server. An initial value is set and a value to wait between intervals can be
    specified. To set Ramp Up, go to ‘Scenario Scheduling Options’
  24. What is the advantage of running the Vuser as thread? - VuGen provides the facility to use multithreading. This enables more Vusers to be run per
    generator. If the Vuser is run as a process, the same driver program is loaded into memory for each Vuser, thus taking up a large amount of memory. This limits the number of Vusers that can be run on a single
    generator. If the Vuser is run as a thread, only one instance of the driver program is loaded into memory for the given number of
    Vusers (say 100). Each thread shares the memory of the parent driver program, thus enabling more Vusers to be run per generator.
  25. If you want to stop the execution of your script on error, how do you do that? - The lr_abort function aborts the execution of a Vuser script. It instructs the Vuser to stop executing the Actions section, execute the vuser_end section and end the execution. This function is useful when you need to manually abort a script execution as a result of a specific error condition. When you end a script using this function, the Vuser is assigned the status "Stopped". For this to take effect, we have to first uncheck the .Continue on error. option in Run-Time Settings.  
  26. What is the relation between Response Time and Throughput? - The Throughput graph shows the amount of data in bytes that the Vusers received from the server in a second. When we compare this with the transaction response time, we will notice that as throughput decreased, the response time also decreased. Similarly, the peak throughput and highest response time would occur approximately at the same time.
  27. Explain the Configuration of your systems? - The configuration of our systems refers to that of the client machines on which we run the Vusers. The configuration of any client machine includes its hardware settings, memory, operating system, software applications, development tools, etc. This system component configuration should match with the overall system configuration that would include the network infrastructure, the web server, the database server, and any other components that go with this larger system so as to achieve the load testing objectives.
  28. How do you identify the performance bottlenecks? - Performance Bottlenecks can be detected by using monitors. These monitors might be application server monitors, web server monitors, database server monitors and network monitors. They help in finding out the troubled area in our scenario which causes increased response time. The measurements made are usually performance response time, throughput, hits/sec, network delay graphs, etc.
  29. If web server, database and Network are all fine where could be the problem? - The problem could be in the system itself or in the application server or in the code written for the application.
  30. How did you find web server related issues? - Using Web resource monitors we can find the performance of web servers. Using these monitors we can analyze throughput on the web server, number of hits per second that
    occurred during scenario, the number of http responses per second, the number of downloaded pages per second.
  31. How did you find database related issues? - By running .Database. monitor and help of .Data Resource Graph. we can find database related issues. E.g. You can specify the resource you want to measure on before running the controller and than you can see database related issues
  32. Explain all the web recording options?
  33. What is the difference between Overlay graph and Correlate graph? - Overlay Graph: It overlay the content of two graphs that shares a common x-axis. Left Y-axis on the merged graph show.s the current graph.s value & Right Y-axis show the value of Y-axis of the graph that was merged. Correlate Graph:Plot the Y-axis of two graphs against each other. The active graph.s Y-axis becomes X-axis of merged graph. Y-axis of the graph that was merged becomes merged graph.s Y-axis.
  34. How did you plan the Load? What are the Criteria? - Load test is planned to decide the number of users, what kind of machines we are going to use and from where they are run. It is based on 2 important documents, Task Distribution Diagram and Transaction profile. Task Distribution Diagram gives us the information on number of users for a particular transaction and the time of the load. The peak usage and off-usage are decided from this Diagram. Transaction profile gives us the information about the transactions name and their priority levels with regard to the scenario we are deciding.
  35. What does vuser_init action contain? - Vuser_init action contains procedures to login to a server.
  36. What does vuser_end action contain? - Vuser_end section contains log off procedures.  
  37. What is think time? How do you change the threshold? -   Think time is the time that a real user waits between actions. Example: When a user receives data from a server, the user may wait several seconds to review the data before responding. This delay is known as the think time. Changing the Threshold: Threshold level is the level below which the recorded think time will be ignored. The default value is five (5) seconds. We can change the think time threshold in the Recording options of the Vugen.
  38. What is the difference between standard log and extended log? - The standard log sends a subset of functions and messages sent during script execution to a log. The subset depends on the Vuser type Extended log sends a detailed script execution messages to the output log. This is mainly used during debugging when we want information about: Parameter substitution. Data returned by the server. Advanced trace.
  39. Explain the following functions: - lr_debug_message - The lr_debug_message function sends a debug message to the output log when the specified message class is set. lr_output_message - The lr_output_message function sends notifications to the Controller Output window and the Vuser log file.lr_error_message - The lr_error_message function sends an error message to the LoadRunner Output window. lrd_stmt - The lrd_stmt function associates a character string (usually a SQL statement) with a cursor. This function sets a SQL statement to be processed. lrd_fetch - The lrd_fetch function fetches the next row from the result set.
  40. Throughput -  If the throughput scales upward as time progresses and the number of Vusers increase, this indicates that the bandwidth is sufficient. If the graph were to remain relatively flat as the number of Vusers increased, it would
    be reasonable to conclude that the bandwidth is constraining the volume of
    data delivered. 
  41. Types of Goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario -  Load Runner provides you with five different types of goals in a goal oriented scenario:
    • The number of concurrent Vusers
    • The number of hits per second
    • The number of transactions per second
    • The number of pages per minute
    • The transaction response time that you want your scenario
  42. Analysis Scenario (Bottlenecks): In Running Vuser graph correlated with the response time graph you can see that as the number of Vusers increases, the average response time of the check itinerary transaction very gradually increases. In other words, the average response time steadily increases as the load
    increases. At 56 Vusers, there is a sudden, sharp increase in the average response
    time. We say that the test broke the serverThat is the mean time before failure (MTBF). The response time clearly began to degrade when there were more than 56 Vusers running simultaneously.
  43. What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation? - Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.
  44. Where do you set automatic correlation options? - Automatic correlation from web point of view, can be set in recording options and correlation tab. Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that correlation.  Automatic correlation for database, can be done using show output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific value to be correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and specify how the value to be created.
  45. What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web vuser script? - Web_reg_save_param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.

Software tester (SQA) interview questions


These questions are used for software tester or SQA (Software Quality Assurance) positions. Refer to The Real World of Software Testing for more information in the field.
  1. The top management was feeling that when there are any changes in the technology being used, development schedules etc, it was a waste of time to update the Test Plan. Instead, they were emphasizing that you should put your time into testing than working on the test plan. Your Project Manager asked for your opinion. You have argued that Test Plan is very important and you need to update your test plan from time to time. It’s not a waste of time and testing activities would be more effective when you have your plan clear. Use some metrics. How you would support your argument to have the test plan consistently updated all the time.
  2. The QAI is starting a project to put the CSTE certification online. They will use an automated process for recording candidate information, scheduling candidates for exams, keeping track of results and sending out certificates. Write a brief test plan for this new project.
  3. The project had a very high cost of testing. After going in detail, someone found out that the testers are spending their time on software that doesn’t have too many defects. How will you make sure that this is correct?
  4. What are the disadvantages of over-testing?
  5. What happens to the test plan if the application has a functionality not mentioned in the requirements?
  6. You are given two scenarios to test. Scenario 1 has only one terminal for entry and processing whereas scenario 2 has several terminals where the data input can be made. Assuming that the processing work is the same, what would be the specific tests that you would perform in Scenario 2, which you would not carry on Scenario 1?
  7. Your customer does not have experience in writing Acceptance Test Plan. How will you do that in coordination with customer? What will be the contents of Acceptance Test Plan?
  8. How do you know when to stop testing?
  9. What can you do if the requirements are changing continuously?
  10. What is the need for Test Planning?
  11. What are the various status reports you will generate to Developers and Senior Management?
  12. Define and explain any three aspects of code review?
  13. Why do you need test planning?
  14. Explain 5 risks in an e-commerce project. Identify the personnel that must be involved in the risk analysis of a project and describe their duties. How will you prioritize the risks?
  15. What are the various status reports that you need generate for Developers and Senior Management?
  16. You have been asked to design a Defect Tracking system. Think about the fields you would specify in the defect tracking system?
  17. Write a sample Test Policy?
  18. Explain the various types of testing after arranging them in a chronological order?
  19. Explain what test tools you will need for client-server testing and why?
  20. Explain what test tools you will need for Web app testing and why?
  21. Explain pros and cons of testing done development team and testing by an independent team?
  22. Differentiate Validation and Verification?
  23. Explain Stress, Load and Performance testing?
  24. Describe automated capture/playback tools and list their benefits?
  25. How can software QA processes be implemented without stifling productivity?
  26. How is testing affected by object-oriented designs?
  27. What is extreme programming and what does it have to do with testing?
  28. Write a test transaction for a scenario where 6.2% of tax deduction for the first $62,000 of income has to be done?
  29. What would be the Test Objective for Unit Testing? What are the quality measurements to assure that unit testing is complete?
  30. Prepare a checklist for the developers on Unit Testing before the application comes to testing department.
  31. Draw a pictorial diagram of a report you would create for developers to determine project status.
  32. Draw a pictorial diagram of a report you would create for users and management to determine project status.
  33. What 3 tools would you purchase for your company for use in testing? Justify the need?
  34. Put the following concepts, put them in order, and provide a brief description of each:
    • system testing
    • acceptance testing
    • unit testing
    • integration testing
    • benefits realization testing
  35. What are two primary goals of testing?
  36. If your company is going to conduct a review meeting, who should be on the review committe and why?
  37. Write any three attributes which will impact the Testing Process?
  38. What activity is done in Acceptance Testing, which is not done in System testing?
  39. You are a tester for testing a large system. The system data model is very large with many attributes and there are a lot of inter-dependencies within the fields. What steps would you use to test the system and also what are the effects of the steps you have taken on the test plan?
  40. Explain and provide examples for the following black box techniques?
    • Boundary Value testing
    • Equivalence testing
    • Error Guessing
  41. What are the product standards for?
    • Test Plan
    • Test Script and Test Report
  42. You are the test manager starting on system testing. The development team says that due to a change in the requirements, they will be able to deliver the system for SQA 5 days past the deadline. You cannot change the resources (work hours, days, or test tools). What steps will you take to be able to finish the testing in time?
  43. Your company is about to roll out an e-commerce application. It’s not possible to test the application on all types of browsers on all platforms and operating systems. What steps would you take in the testing environment to reduce the business risks and commercial risks?
  44. In your organization, testers are delivering code for system testing without performing unit testing. Give an example of test policy:
    • Policy statement
    • Methodology
    • Measurement
  45. Testers in your organization are performing tests on the deliverables even after significant defects have been found. This has resulted in unnecessary testing of little value, because re-testing needs to be done after defects have been rectified. You are going to update the test plan with recommendations on when to halt testing. Wwhat recommendations are you going to make?
  46. How do you measure:
    • Test Effectiveness
    • Test Efficiency
  47. You found out the senior testers are making more mistakes then junior testers; you need to communicate this aspect to the senior tester. Also, you don’t want to lose this tester. How should one go about constructive criticism?
  48. You are assigned to be the test lead for a new program that will automate take-offs and landings at an airport. How would you write a test strategy for this new program?

QTP Hackers - How to decrypt encrypted (SetSecure'd) password

I will explain you how to decode an encoded password in QTP.
Using QuickTest Professional and this approach, you can hack email accounts published on Internet. Are you interested? :) So, continue reading this QTP tutorial for details.

I've just recorded a simple script, which signs into Gmail. It:

  1. Fills 'Username' in
  2. Fills 'Password' in
  3. Clicks 'Sign in' button

And the recorded QTP script is:

Browser("Gmail").Page("Gmail").WebEdit("Email").Set "someaccount"Browser("Gmail").Page("Gmail").WebEdit("Passwd").SetSecure "493844a99bee0e3ab952f2e867fd08e3"Browser("Gmail").Page("Gmail").WebButton("Sign in").Click

As you can see, QTP script is simple enough.
I've set "someaccount" to 'Username' editbox. But what about 'Password' editbox? What value have I filled in?


QTP encrypted the password using SetSecure method:

WebEdit("Passwd").SetSecure "493844a99bee0e3ab952f2e867fd08e3"
QTP Help: 
The SetSecure method is recorded when a password or other secure text is entered.
The text is encrypted while recording and decrypted during the test run.


How to know the initial text?

There is one trick. Apply SetSecure method to non-secured edit box!
Instead of this QTP code:
Browser("Gmail").Page("Gmail").WebEdit("Email").Set "someaccount"Browser("Gmail").Page("Gmail").WebEdit("Passwd").SetSecure "493844a99bee0e3ab952f2e867fd08e3"
I run this QTP script:
Browser("Gmail").Page("Gmail").WebEdit("Email").SetSecure "493844a99bee0e3ab952f2e867fd08e3"
And the result of this QTP script is:


Yes, "mypwd" was encrypted to "493844a99bee0e3ab952f2e867fd08e3". So, "mypwd" is the password I filled!
So, this is an easy way to decrypt an encrypted password in QTP.


By the way, there are two ways how to decrypt a password in QuickTest Professional:

  1. Using Crypt.Encrypt
    str = "Some Text"
    encrStr = Crypt.Encrypt(str)

    'encrStr' will contain an encrypted text.
  2. Using Password Encoder from 'Start/Programs/QuickTest Professional/Tools'

Summary:
  • I explained two ways how to crypt a text in QTP
  • I shown an approach how to decrypt an encrypted text


Well, I promised to show how to hack email addresses... I remember!

I searched several QTP sites and forums for "SetSecure" function and found that some QTP engineers published their code snippets with encrypted passwords (for example, entrance into email accounts) :)

Now you know how to "read" (=steal) passwords in plain text.

Why do I tell that? 
Just to remind - be careful when you publish such private info on Internet.

Automated testing without automated testing tools


How many automated testing tools exist in the world?

Hm... I think, hundreds - SeleniumQuickTest ProfessionalSilkTestJmeterLoadRunnerSTAFWatirCanoo WebTest, and so on...


Is is possible to perform an automated testing without automated testing tools? Sure!


I will show how to perform automated testing of web applications on Internet Explorer (IE) browser.
The main advantage is that these tests can be run on any Windows computer without any additional sofware required.

Let's see steps of sample test:

  1. Open IE and navigate to google.com:

         2. Set value of edit box to 'Easy way to automate testing':


        3. Click 'Google Search' button


4. If a search results page contains a link to this blog (http://www.manualtesting.co.nr) then click this link:


5. Last step is to close the IE window

I've automated this test with an instance of the InternetExplorer object.

Details info about InternetExplorer object is located here.


I hope, the source code of my test is clean and understandable. Here it is:

Option Explicit
Dim objIE, objLink
Set objIE = OpenBrowser("http://google.com")

' View the HTML source on Google's page to see the 'q' and 'btnG' values
objIE.Document.All("q").Value = "Easy way to automate testing"
objIE.Document.All("btnG").Click
WaitForLoad(objIE)

' Find a link to http://motevich.blogspot.com
Set objLink = GetLinkByHref(objIE, "motevich.blogspot.com")

' If found, then click it
If (False = IsNull(objLink)) Then
    objLink.Click
    WaitForLoad(objIE)
End If

' Close IE window
objIE.Quit
WScript.StdOut.Write("Script completed successfully...")


''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Functions 

' Opens IE and navigates to specified URL
Private Function OpenBrowser(URL)
    Dim ie
    Set ie = CreateObject("InternetExplorer.Application")

    ie.Visible = True
    ie.Navigate2 URL
    WaitForLoad(ie)
    
    Set OpenBrowser = ie
End Function

' Waits for page fully loaded
Private Sub WaitForLoad(ie)
    Const WAIT_TIMEOUT = 100

    While (ie.Busy) or (ie.ReadyState <> 4' READYSTATE_COMPLETE = 4
        WScript.Sleep(WAIT_TIMEOUT)
    Wend
End Sub

' Gets Link by 'href' attribute.
' Note: If your need, you can write another function - GetLinkByText
Private Function GetLinkByHref(ie, href)
    Dim Link
    
    For Each Link In ie.Document.Links
        If Instr(LCase(Link.href), LCase(href)) > 0 Then
            Set GetLinkByHref = Link
            Exit Function
        End If
    Next

    Set GetLinkByHref = Null
End Function



How to run this file?
  1. Save this code to file, for example to ieauto.vbs.
  2. To execute this file, run from command line: cscript ieauto.vbs
    or paste this command to bat-file:
    and run the bat-file from command line.


The result of execution is:





Test runs and performs all steps correctly (it opens IE, fills values, clicks button, clicks link, closes IE).


Conclusion:

You can create and use instances of the InternetExplorer object to perform and to test all actions, which you run manually.
Or to do some routine operations in a browser, for example - filling forms, creating test users, and so on.

CRM Testing Interview Questions & Answers



What is Customer Life Cycle?

1. The life cycle of the customer is the process the customer has been undergoing to be with company for all the years.

2. This includes the customer?s purchase history, perhaps how often she?s taken advantage of special offers directed at her or her customer class.

3. Depending on what company identify as important to customer?s return on investment (ROI), it could also include customers? marketing value to company and how much revenue that marketing value could be worth indirectly.

4. To find out what is the expected revenue generated from a single customer over the anticipated lifetime of that customer?s relationship with company is both the customer life cycle and the customer lifetime value (CLV).



What is the full form of CDO?

CDO means Clarify CRM Data Objects not Common Data Objects as i supposeThese are the Client side data objects.


What are the types of CRM technology?

1. Operational CRM
2. Analytical CRM
3. Collaborative CRM
4. Operational CRM:


Operational CRM is the customer-facing applications of CRM?the aforementioned sales force automation, enterprise marketing automation,

and front-office suites that encompass all of this simultaneously.

1. This is the ?ERP-like? segment of CRM.

2. One facet of operational CRM is the possibility of integrating with the financial and human resources functions of the enterprise resource planning (ERP) applications such as PeopleSoft and SAP. With this integration, end-to-end functionality from lead management to Order tracking can be implemented.



Analytical CRM

1. The analytic segment includes data marts or data warehouses such as

2. customer repositories that are used by applications that apply algorithms
    to dissect the data and present it in a form that is useful to the user.

3.  Analytical CRM is the capture, storage, extraction, processing,    interpretation, and reporting of customer data to a user.


Collaborative CRM

1.  The collaborative CRM reaches across customer touch points.
It is the communication center, the coordination network that provides
the neural paths to the customer and his suppliers.

2. It could mean a portal, a partner relationship management (PRM) application, or a customer interaction center (CIC).

3. It could mean communication channels such as the Web or email, voice applications, or snail mail.

4. It could mean channel strategies. In other words, it is any CRM function that provides a point of interaction between the customer and the channel itself.